The Industrial Revolution began in England in the late 1700. It had a wide range of negative and positive effects in which it affected the economic and social life on the people living in England. These outcomes have been interpreted by different views of people such as factory owners, the government, factory workers, and others who viewed the conditions of the industrial cities at the time. There were many positive and negative effects of the Industrial Revolution. According to an excerpt from William Cooper’s testimony before the Sadler Committee (an investigation group led by Michael Sadler on the conditions of the textile factories), the testimony described the negative effects of the Industrial Revolution. Cooper states “ We had one period of forty minutes in the sixteen hours. That was at noon.” This meant that Cooper, and other children working in the factories, receives little or no food at all. Lack of nutrition can cause improper bone growths and health problems such as stunted growth (when a person does not grow or weigh as much as he/she should). A factory worker’s diet usually consisted of high amounts of carbohydrates (carbohydrates gave the children energy to continue working for long periods of time, usually 14- 16 hours a day).
Cooper also states “ We had no time to go to day school.” This meant that the children were not educated and many could read, but not write. School was not important during this time period because many factory owners needed a huge amount of cheap labor. The textile factories allowed children to make money in order to support their family due to the higher living expenses of urbanization. (Many farmers were kicked out of their land to search for new jobs in which they settled in the city). According to an excerpt from the testimony of Joseph Hebergam to the Sadler Committee (an investigation group led by Michael Sadler on the conditions of the textile factories), the testimony described the negative effects of the Industrial revolution. Hebergam states “ I have damaged lungs. My leg muscles do not function properly and will not support the weight of my bones.” Many factory workers faced great health problems due to the working conditions that surrounded them. Factories consisted of dirty floors that were filled with dusts, rooms that had little or no windows for fresh air and received little or no sunlight, and dangerous machines worked by children.
Lack of sunlight caused depression, dust caused lung cancer, and long hours caused deformed growth abilities. Also, many children were injured by the machines. Due to the long hours of labor, children usually had lack of concentration in which their body parts would get caught between the machines. According to an excerpt from William Cooper’s testimony before the Sadler Committee in 1832 and an excerpt from the testimony of Joseph Hebergam to the Sadler Committee (an investigation group led by Michael Sadler on the conditions of the textile factories), the testimony described the negative effects of the Industrial Revolution. Textile factories were filled with children, running machines, and harsh labor conditions. Children had to work long hours (16- 18 hours) making 3-4 pence a day and received little nutrition in which it led to many health conditions such as lung disease, improper bone growth, and back problems (spines were bent rather then being up-straight). Meal were eaten one time a day and would consists of carbohydrates (a source of energy). Children also received no education in which many could no write but could only read simple phrases used in the factories (ex: work).
More of, many children died due to being cut by running machines such as scavenger, in which small aged children had to crawl under machines in motion to pick up fallen cotton in which it caused serious injuries. According to an excerpt from “The Working Man’s Companion” (describes cheap manufacturing and increased employment) by London Charles Knight , the author describes the positive effects of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution led to faster and cheaper manufactures that were not available two or three centuries ago. Materials began to be mass produced and use throughout the world as Great Britain traded their products with other foreign countries. This also allowed people to travel ten times quicker (plane and ships), build houses better, produce clothes are cheaper, and acquire infinite number of domestic utensils (materials used in everyday life). Due to the Industrial Revolution,Great Britain became a dominate country in which is controlled many countries and gained wealth due to trade with other countries. This also led other countries to their own Industrial Revolution such as USA during the early 1800s to the late 1800s.
According to an excerpt from “The Philosophy of Manufactures” by Andrew Ure ( a Scottish doctor, scholar, chemist. and early business theorist), 1835, Ure described the positive effects of the Industrial Revolution. Ure points out the benefits of industrialization to a country as a whole such as greater productivity and overall increase in wealth. “ They seemed to be always cheerful and alert, taking pleasure in the light play of their muscles” states Ure. This meant that the children enjoyed their long hours of labor and also concluded that the children were better of working in the factories rather than staying at home. (many apartments during the Industrial Revolution were crowded, damp, and cold). Ure also ignored the working and living conditions of factory workers and believed that workers were better off under industrialization rather than to trying to live as farmers.
According to an excerpt from “The Philosophy of Manufactures” by Andrew Ure, 1835 and an excerpt from “The Working Man’s Companion”, the Industrial Revolution was described as a positive effect on the country, society, and the people. The Industrial Revolution allowed products to be produced quicker and brought at a cheaper price. People were able to buy things quicker, travel faster, build stronger architectural building and obtain infinite amounts of domestic utensils. Children during this time were active and cheerful in which they worked long hours. According to Ure, “ Its is moreover my firm conviction [opinion] that children would thrive better when employed in our modern factories.” This meant that children would be better of working then staying home because many houses were cold and damp. The working labor of the textile industries allowed the technology of mass productions of items such as chairs, cups, and spoons (which are all used in everything life).
In conclusion, the Industrial Revolution began in England in the late 1700. It had a wide range of negative and positive effects in which it affected the economic and social life on the people living in England. These outcomes have been interpreted by different views of people such as factory owners, the government, factory workers, and others who viewed the conditions of the industrial cities at the time. The Industrial revolution allowed products to be mass produced but caused a great grief in the working class during this time period. There were many positive and negative effects of the Industrial Revolution.
inventions transformed the textile industry. Transportation was alsoreformed with inventions of the steam engine by James Watt(1765),the building of the 1st railroad track (1821-1825), and alocomotive called the Rocket built by George Stephenson and his son(1829).Besides the postive effects, the Industrial Revolution also had negativeeffects. Because of urbanization, many cities, whose infrastructuresystem could not keep up with the rapid population growth, wereovercrowded with people looking for jobs. England's cities lackeddecent housing, sanitary codes, education, and police protection. Manyworkers of the working class lived in small, dirty shelters wheresickness was widespread. With the introduction of steam, factoryconditons became worse. Machines injured workers. Many factoryowners wanted to get the cheapest labor possible. To do this, factoryowners hired workers, mostly women and children because the werethe cheapest labor, so they could work long hours for low wages. Asthe working class saw little improvements in living and workingconditions, the middle class, made up of skilled workers, professionals,factory owners, and other well do to people, saw improvements in theirlives. The middle class was now able to afford things that the wealthyonly had acess to, such as servants.In the 19th century, the Industrial Revolution created a major gapbetween the rich and the poor. Many reformers felt that thegovernment needed to play an active role to improve the standard of living for the poor. Many ideas and philosophies were created as areaction to the Industrial Revolution. An economic system, calledsocialism, grew during the 1800s as a reaction to the IndustrialRevolution. It called for more state influence, equal rights, and an endto inhumanity, which stood strongly opposite to individualism andlaissez-fairepolitics. Laissez-fairephilosophy (capitalism), which wasfirst started by Adam Smith, suggested that owners of industry andbusiness set working conditons without the government intervening.Other social movements, including communism, a form of completesocialism where all means of production would be owned by the peopleleaving a small number of manufacturers to control wealth, which wasproposed by Karl Marx, and utilitarianism, which judged ideas,institutions, and actions based on their utility and beleived governmentactions should promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people, was introduced by Jeremy Bentham but led by John Stuart Mill. The Industrial Revolution, like the French Revolution, left a permanentmark on society. Life in the 18th century changed dramatically causingclasses to shift, wealth to increase, and nations to begin assuming