TheoryThis section summarises the theories of critical thinking upon which we based our content analysis method, for those who have not yet read the methodology paper (Newman et al. 1995).
Garrison developed a theory of critical thinking, as a kind of problem-solving process (Garrison 1992). Critical thinkers move through 5 stages, identifying a problem, defining it more clearly, exploring the problem and possible solutions, evaluating their applicability, and then integrating this understanding with existing knowledge. Although he initially developed it as a means of studying individual distance learners, it is well suited to the analysis of critical thinking within group learning, since these same stages are followed.
Henri (1991) identified five dimensions for analysing Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC): participative, social, interactive, cognitive and metacognitive. Questions of deep learning and critical thinking are in the cognitive dimension, so we concentrated on that. She laid out 5 skills needed for critical reasoning. It turns out that each skill is used mainly in one of Garrison's stages, as Table 1 shows.
|Garrison's CT stages||Henri's critical reasoning skills|
|1. Problem identification|
a triggering event arouses interest in a problem
observing or studying a problem, identifying its elements, observing their linkages
|2. Problem definition|
define problem boundaries, ends and means
analysing a problem to understand its underlying values, beliefs and assumptions
|3. Problem exploration|
ability to see to heart of problem based on deep understanding of situation
admitting or proposing an idea based on links to admittedly true propositions
|4. Problem applicability|
evaluation of alternative solutions and new ideas
making decisions, evaluations and criticisms
|5. Problem integration|
acting upon understanding to validate knowledge
for application of solution following on choice or decision
For each stage, Garrison, Henri and us identified indicators that showed (or at least suggested) critical thinking was taking place. For the content analysis, we picked pairs of indicators: a +ve indicator, showing evidence of critical thinking, and a -ve indicator, showing its opposite (e.g. uncritical acceptance or denial, deviations from the subject). These are discussed in detail in the earlier paper, and listed in Appendix A, where we show how we think they map into Garrison's 5 stages of critical thinking.
Chapter 5. The First Four Stages of Development: What Level Thinker Are You?
Most of us are not what we could be. We are less. We have great capacity, but most of it is dormant and undeveloped. Improvement in thinking is like improvement in basketball, ballet, or playing the saxophone. It is unlikely to take place in the absence of a conscious commitment to learn. As long as we take our thinking for granted, we don't do the work required for improvement.
Development in thinking is a gradual process requiring plateaus of learning and just plain hard work. It is not possible to become an excellent thinker by simply taking a beginning course. Changing one's habits of thought is a long-range project, happening over years, not weeks or months. The essential traits of a critical thinker, which we examined briefly in Chapter 3, require an extended period of development.
Here are the stages we go through if we aspire to develop as thinkers (Figure 5.1):
Stage 1 The Unreflective Thinker (we are unaware of significant problems in our thinking)
Stage 2 The Challenged Thinker (we become aware of problems in our thinking)
Stage 3 The Beginning Thinker (we try to improve, but without regular practice)
Stage 4 The Practicing Thinker (we recognize the necessity of regular practice)
Stage 5 The Advanced Thinker (we advance in accordance with our practice)
Stage 6 The Master Thinker (skilled and insightful thinking becomes second nature)
In this chapter, we will explain the first four stages with the hope that understanding these stages, even at a provisional level, will help you begin to grasp what is necessary in order to develop as a thinker. Only through years of advanced practice can one become an "advanced" or "master" thinker.