The importance and antiquity of education in Kerala is underscored by the state's ranking as among the most literate in the country. The local dynastic precursors of modern-day Kerala - primarily the Travancore Royal Family, the Christian missionaries, The Nair Service Society,Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam (SNDP Yogam) and Muslim Educational Society (MES) - made significant contributions to the progress on education in Kerala. There were many sabha mathams that imparted Vedic knowledge. Apart from kalaris, which taught martial arts, there were village schools run by Ezhuthachans or Asans. Christian missionaries brought the modern school education system to Kerala.
Education in Kerala had been promoted during British rule in India by Christian missionaries who were keen on providing education to all sections of society and on strengthening of women, without any kind of discrimination. The contributions of Catholic priests and nuns has been crucial and has played a major role in the education of women and members of lower strata of society, resulting in the surpassing of many social hurdles. A significant figure in the 19th century was Rev.fr. Kuriakose Elias Chavara, who started a system called "A school along with every church" to make education available for both poor and rich. That system still continues in the present. His work has resulted in the promotion of education for girls and has become a model for the educational system in Kerala after independence. Kerala's high literacy rate is attributed to a high literacy rate among girls; as it is said, "When a woman is educated, she will make sure that her children are well-educated."
The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics was founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala, which included among its members: Parameshvara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri and Achyuta Panikkar. The school flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries and the original discoveries of the school seems to have ended with Narayana Bhattathiri (1559–1632). In attempting to solve astronomical problems, the Kerala school independently created a number of important mathematics concepts. Their most important results—series expansion for trigonometric functions—were described in Sanskrit verse in a book by Neelakanta called Tantrasangraha, and again in a commentary on this work, called Tantrasangraha-vakhya, of unknown authorship. The theorems were stated without proof, but proofs for the series for sine, cosine, and inverse tangent were provided a century later in the work Yuktibhāṣā (c.1500-1610), written in Malayalam, by Jyesthadeva, and also in a commentary on Tantrasangraha.
Their work, completed two centuries before the invention of calculus in Europe, provided what is now considered the first example of a power series (apart from geometric series). However, they did not formulate a systematic theory of differentiation and integration, nor is there any direct evidence of their results being transmitted outside Kerala.
Schools and colleges are mostly run by the government, private trusts, or individuals. Each school is affiliated with either the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), Kerala State Education Board or the (NIOS). English is the language of instruction in most private schools, while government run schools offer English or Malayalam as the medium of instruction. Government run schools in the districts bordering Karnataka and Tamil Nadu also offer instruction in Kannada or Tamil languages. A handful of Government Sanskrit Schools provide instruction in Sanskrit supplemented by Malayalam, English, Tamil or Kannada. After 10 years of secondary schooling, students typically enroll at Higher Secondary School in one of the three streams—liberal arts, commerce or science. Upon completing the required coursework, students can enroll in general or professional degree programmes. Kerala topped the Education Development Index (EDI) among 21 major states in India in year 2006-2007. In January 2016, Kerala became the 1st Indian state to achieve 100% primary education through its literacy programme Athulyam.
Quality of education
In spite of the large number of educational institutions in the state, the quality of education at all levels in Kerala has been showing a decline due to financial constraints resulting from quantitative expansion of the sector.
A study published in 1999 by the Centre for Socio-economic & Environmental Studies states that while the dropout rates are very low in primary schools, the same increases in the ninth and the tenth standards in Kerala. This is particularly true of SC/ST students. Schools showed that only 73% of the students joining at 1st Standard reach the 10th Standard. In the case of scheduled caste students, only 59% reach the 10th standard. 60% of Scheduled Tribe students drop out by the 10th standard.
Another major indicator of the inefficiency of Kerala's school education system is the large-scale failure of the students in the matriculation examination. Only about 50% of the students who appear for the examination get through. The percentage has been considerably increased because of major interventions by the government in the areas of curriculum and teacher training. In March 2011, 91.37% students qualified for higher studies in the matriculation Examination.The grades in SSLC examination plays an important role in the admission procedure to colleges in Kerala. 
The schools and colleges in Kerala are run by the government or private trusts and individuals. Each school is affiliated with either the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), Kerala State Education Board or the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). English is the language of instruction in most private schools, but government run schools offer both English and Malayalam as medium. After 10 years of secondary schooling, students typically enroll at Higher Secondary School in one of the three streams—liberal arts, commerce or science. Upon completing the required coursework, students can enroll in general or professional degree programmes. Lots of civil service institutes are there.
Thiruvananthapuram, the state's major academic hub, University of Kerala and several professional education colleges, including 15 engineering colleges, three medical colleges, three Ayurveda colleges, two colleges of homeopathy, six other medical colleges, and several law colleges.Trivandrum Medical College, Kerala's premier health institute, one of the finest in the country, is being upgraded to the status of an All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS). The College of Engineering, Trivandrum is one of the prominent engineering institutions in the state. The Asian School of Business and IIITM-K are two of the other premier management study institutions in the city, both situated inside Technopark. The Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, first of its kind in India, is also situated here and an Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram is also being set up.Trivandrum district holds the most number of colleges and schools in Kerala including 4 international schools, 30 professional colleges, and 38 vocational training institutes
Thiruvananthapuram is also home to most number of Research Centres in Kerala including ISRO, IISER, BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) etc. The College of Engineering, Trivandrum is one of the prominent engineering institutions in the country. The Asian School of Business and IIITM-K are two of the other premier management study institutions in the city, both situated inside Technopark. The Indian Institute of Space Technology, the unique and first of its kind in India, is situated in the state capital.
Science and technology centres in Trivandrum
Thiruvananthapuram is a Research and Development hub in the fields of space science, information technology, bio-technology, and medicine. It is home to the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS), Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology (RGCB), Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute, ER&DC – CDAC, CSIR – National Institute of Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Free Software Foundation of India (FSFI), Regional Cancer Centre (RCC), Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST), Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS), Central Tuber Crops Research Institute (CTCRI), Priyadarsini Planetarium, The Oriental Research Institute & Manuscripts Library, Chief Disease Investigation Office(CDIO) Palode, Kerala Highway Research Institute, Kerala Fisheries Research Institute, etc. A scientific institution named National centre for molecular materials, for the research and development of biomedical devices and space electronics is to be established in Thiruvananthapuram. College of Architecture Trivandrum(CAT), which specialise only on the architecture course, is another institution proposed to set up in the suburbs of the city.
Kochi / Ernakulam
Kochi is another major educational hub. The Cochin University of Science and Technology (also known as "Cochin University") is situated in the suburb of the city. Most of the city's colleges offering tertiary education are affiliated to the Mahatma Gandhi University. Other national educational institutes in Kochi include the Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training, the National University of Advanced Legal Studies, the National Institute of Oceanography, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology and the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. College of Fisheries affiliated to Kerala Agricultural University is situated at Panangad, a suburban area of the city. Pothanicad, a village in Ernakulam district is the first panchayath in India that achieved 100% literacy.Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit (SSUS), also famous as Sanskrit University, is situated in Kalady, in the Northern side of Ernakulam District.
Kozhikode is the major education city in Kerala which is home to two of the premier educational institutions in the country; the IIMK, one of the thirteen Indian Institutes of Management, and the only National Institute of Technology in Kerala, the NITC. Other important educational institutions in the district include Calicut Medical College, Government Law College, Calicut, Government Engineering College Kozhikode, College Of Applied Science IHRD, Kiliyand Kozhikode, College of Nursing Calicut, Kerala School of Mathematics, Govt. Dental College, Co-Operative Institute of Technology and Govt. Polytechnic College.
The progress that Malappuram district has achieved in the field of education during the last decade is tremendous. Great strides have been made in the field of female education. Malappuram district is home to three universities (University of Calicut, Aligarh Muslim University campus and Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan Malayalam University. And the state Government has proposed to establish two new universities, Ayurveda University and English and Foreign Languages University campus here.
The district also hosts a substantial amount of religious educational institutions such as Darul Huda Islamic University, which has more than 30 affiliated colleges throughout Kerala.
Thrissur acts as the important education hub of Kerala. The city has three medical colleges. It is the only district that has four universities: Kerala Agricultural University, Kerala University for Health, Kerala Kalamandalam, and Kerala Institute of Local Administration (KILA).
Kalamandalam conducts the course for arts.
Kerala Institute of Local Administration is the only educational institution in Kerala where the training for IAS candidates takes place.
Similarly city has Kerala Police Academy, Academy for Central Excise, Kerala Forest Research Institute, and research institutes under KAU.
The district of Thrissur holds some of the premier institutions in Kerala such as Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur Medical College, Government Engineering College, Govt. Law College, Ayurveda College, Govt. Fine Arts College, College of Co-operation & Banking and Management, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, College of Horticulture, College of Forestry, Sree Rama Varma Music School etc. Thrissur is also a main center of coaching for the entrance examinations for engineering and medicine.
Kottayam also acts as a main educational hub. According to the 1991 census, Kottayam District of Kerala is the first district to achieve full literacy rate in the whole of India.The Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Technology Kottayam (Government Engineering College) is one among the few elite engineering institutes of the state. Mahatma Gandhi University, CMS College, Medical College, Kottayam, Alphonsa College, Pala, Baselious College, Kottayam, BCM College, Kottayam, BK College, Kottayam, KE College, Mannanam, KG College, Pampady, Saintgits College, Pathamuttam, St. Berchmans College, Changanasserry, Assumption College, Changanasserry, St. Thomas College, Pala, St. Dominics College, Kanjirapally, Amal Jyothi College Of Engineering, Kanjirappally are some of the important educational institutions in the district. Lourdes Public School and Junior College, Kottayam is one among the most reputed Higher Secondary Schools in the district.
The District is characterised by large migration of people from Kerala's main land as also labourers from neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu. Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Arts & Science (JNIAS), Kattappana, College of Applied Science, Kattappana, Government College, Kattappana Marian College, Kuttikanam, Mar Baselious College, Kuttikanam, are some of the important educational institutions in the district
Kannur district in northern part of Kerala has the Kannur University; (This is a multi-campus University having campuses at Kasaragod, Kannur, Thalassery and Mananthavady - The Headquarters of the University is situated at Thavakkara, Kannur), one Government Engineering College, one Government Ayurveda College and several arts and sciences colleges. It also hosts the 13th Centre of NIFT (National Institute of Fashion Technology). The people of Kannur, with the effective leadership of Mr M.V. Raghavan established a full-fledged Medical College in Co-operative sector at Pariyaram. Kannur Medical College at Anjarakandy is a private Medical College located in this district. A private sector Ayurveda Medical College is situated at Parassinikkadavu.
Pathanamthitta District is a district in the southern part of Kerala, India. The district headquarters is in the town of Pathanamthitta. There are four municipalities in Pathanamthitta: Tiruvalla, Adoor, Pathanamthitta and Pandalam.
It is presumed that the regions that form the district were formerly under the rule of Pandalam, which had connections with the Pandya kingdom. When Pandalam was added to the princely state of Travancore in 1820, the region came under Travancore administration.
Adoor, sometimes spelled Adur is a major municipal town in the Pathanamthitta district in Kerala State. Adoor is the one of the Revenue Divisions of the Pathanamthitta District. Adoor was previously in the Kollam District.The municipality is located between the major cities of Trivandrum and Kochi in south Kerala.
Institute of Language Teacher Education (Hindi) located in Adoor its ested in 1992, Hindi B.Ed Course Conducted this Center
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Women safety in India is a big concern which has been a most important topic regarding women safety. We have provided below various essay on Safety of Women in India in order to help students. Now-a-days, essays or paragraphs writing have been common strategy followed by the teachers to enhance the skill and knowledge of students about any topic. All the Safety of Women in India essay are written using very simple words under various words limit according to the need and requirement of students. They can select any of the essays given below:
Essay on Safety of Women in India
Safety of Women in India Essay 1 (100 words)
As we all know that India is a most famous country all over the world for its great tradition and culture where women are given most respected place in the society from the ancient time. It is the country where women are considered as safer and most respected. Women are given the place of Goddess Lakshmi in the Indian society. Indian women are found working in all fields like aeronautics, space, politics, banks, schools, sports, businesses, army, police, and many more. We cannot say that this country has no any women concern however we cannot ignore positive points for women in India. If we remember our history, we found that there was Panchaali Pratha in which a single woman (Draupadi) was allowed to get married to five men (Pandavas). It was all that what we see from our open eyes however if we see behind the curtain we will found all the crimes against women at home, offices, streets, etc. By seeing last few crimes against women in India such as rape cases, acid attacks, etc, the safety of women has been in doubt.
Safety of Women in India Essay 2 (150 words)
Safety of women matters a lot whether at home, outside the home or working place. Last few crimes against women especially rape cases were very dread and fearful. Because of such crimes, women safety in India has become a doubtful topic. According to the statistics of National Crime Records Bureau, highest rate of crime against women was recorded in the Chennai in 2000 (around 4,037 incidences). Chennai is the capital of southern state of Tamil Nadu however has been marked as city with high rate of crimes against women. However, it was seen some decrease in the crime rate against women in the subsequent years (around 838 by 2013). It has been recorded as the largest fall in the crime rate than other cities in India. It was just opposite in the capital of India, Delhi. Crime rate against women in Delhi was 17.6/100,000 females in 2000 (2,122 incidents) and 151.13/100,000 females in 2013 (11,449 incidents).
Some of the most common crimes against women are rape, dowry deaths, sexual harassment at home or work place, kidnapping and abduction, cruelty by husband, relatives, assault on a woman, and sex trafficking.
Safety of Women in India Essay 3 (200 words)
In the last few years, crime against women in Delhi has increased to a great extent. According to the statistics, it is found that every two out of three women have suffered around two to five times sexual harassment in the last year. According to the survey of women, it is found that women are losing their confidence in police. By the survey of Delhi government’s Women and Child Development Department, around 80% of the women in national capital have fear regarding their safety.
Women are harassed not only in the night or evening but also in the day time at their home, working places, or other places like street, club, etc. It is found through the survey that the reason of sexual harassment is the lack of gender-friendly environment and improper functional infrastructure such as consumption of alcohol and drugs in open area, lack of adequate lighting, safe public toilets, sidewalks, lack of effective police service, lack of properly working helpline numbers, etc. A huge percentage of women have no faith that police can curb such harassment cases. There is an urgent need to understand and solve this problem of women safety so that they can also grow equally like men in their own country.
Safety of Women in India Essay 4 (250 words)
It is very true that women in India are given a place of Goddess Lakshmi in the Indian society however we also cannot ignore the negative aspect of women position in India. Every day and every minute some women of all walks of life (a mother, a sister, a wife, young girls, and girl baby children) are getting harassed, molested, assaulted, and violated at various places all over the country. Areas like streets, public spaces, public transport, etc have been the territory of women hunters. Girl students studying in the schools or colleges have to shield themselves through books or bags or they have to wear clothes which can cover them completely. In some cases a girl child is sale by her parents just to earn some money. Girls generally face acid attacks on the streets and kidnapping for the sex purpose by strangers. According to the statistics, it is found that a woman is raped in India every 20 minutes.
In the rural areas, women are still being raped by a family member, beaten by husbands or parents-in-law, burned for dowry, and so many cases. Nirbhaya gang-rape in the national capital of India was a dreadful event which can never be forgotten. Woman covers almost half population of the country so they are half participants in the growth and development of India. We are running in the 21st century, an advanced era however it is very shame to say about the doubtful safety of woman in India.
Safety of Women in India Essay 5 (300 words)
Safety of women in India is a vast topic now-a-days. We cannot say that women are safe in India by seeing the last few year crimes against women especially in the national capital. Women generally feel frightened while going alone outside to the home. It is a very sad reality of the country that its women citizens are living with fear all time. Personal safety of women has been the topic of importance for every Indian citizen. In order to improve the condition regarding women safety in India, following are some points as tips for women safety:
Some Tips Regarding Women Safety
- Self defence techniques are the first and foremost thing to which each and every woman must be aware of and get proper self-defense training for their safety. They must be aware of some effective defence techniques such as kicks to groin, blocking punches, etc.
- Generally most of the women are gifted with sixth sense which they must use whenever they become in some problem. They should at once avoid any situation which they feel bad for them.
- Escape and run is also a good way to reduce some risks of women whenever they become in problem. They should never go with any unknown person alone at some unknown places.
- Women must understand and feel their physical power and use accordingly. They never feel themselves weak than men and take some self defence training.
- They should be careful while communicating with someone on internet in the cyberspace.
- Pepper spray can also be proved as a useful self-defence tool however it has a drawback that some people cannot be harmed through it even after full-face spray. It may not stop the attacker so women should not depend on it completely and use other techniques also.
- They must have all the emergency numbers with them and whatsapp also if possible so that they can immediately tell to their family members and police.
- Women should be very conscious while driving the car and going to any trip. They must lock all the doors of car while travelling with own or private car.
Women safety is a big social issue which needs to be solved urgently by the effort of all. It is inhibiting the growth and development of the country and most importantly hurting the half population of the country in all aspects (physically, mentally, and socially).
Safety of Women in India Essay 6 (400 words)
In the past few years, the safety of women in India has been down because of some continuous and terrible crimes against women. There has been decline in the women status from ancient to medieval period which is continued in such an advanced era. Women of India have equal rights as like as men of this country as they occupy almost half population of the country and involved in half proportion in the growth and development of the country.
It is true that women in modern India are joining high offices (President, Speaker of Lok Sabha, Union Ministers, Leader of Opposition, Chief Minister, Governor, etc) however on the back of curtain they are being exploited too. According to the Constitution of India, they have equal rights of dignity, equality, and freedom from gender discrimination. Indian women are continuously facing numerous problems such as sexual harassment, violent victimization through rape, acid attack, dowry deaths, forced prostitution, and many more.
Education and Economic Development
Number of women heading the households in India is found decreased though female literacy rate is still less than male literacy rate. Urban girls are nearly equal in education like boys however in the rural areas there is still a big gap. On the other hand, some Indian states (like Kerala and Mizoram) have achieved universal female literacy. So, women in such states have high social and economic status. Women literacy rate in India is still less because of the inadequate school facilities, sanitary facilities, increasing crimes against women, shortage of female teachers, gender discrimination in the society, etc. According to the statistics of 2015, it is found that women (above 15 years or older) literacy rate is 60.6% whereas male literacy rate is 81.3%.
Crimes against women in India
There is a big list of crimes against women in India such as acid attack, child marriages, domestic violence, forceful domestic work, child abuse, dowry deaths, female infanticide and sex-selective abortions, child labour, honor killings, rape, sexual harassment, trafficking, forced for prostitution, and many more.
What are Safety Laws for Women in India
There is a list of safety laws for women in India working in the field to provide safety to the women from all type of crimes against women. Some safety laws are Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929, Special Marriage Act 1954, Hindu Marriage Act 1955, Hindu Widows Remarriage Act 1856, Indian Penal Code 1860, Dowry Prohibition Act 1961, Maternity Benefit Act 1861, Foreign Marriage Act 1969, Indian Divorce Act 1969, Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971, Christian Marriage Act 1872, Code of Criminal Procedure 1973, Equal Remuneration Act 1976, Married Women’s Property Act 1874, Births, Deaths & Marriages Registration Act 1886, Indecent Representation of Women (Prevention) Act 1986, Muslim women (protection of rights on divorce) Act 1986, Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act 1987, National Commission for Women Act 1990, Prohibition of Sex Selection Act 1994, Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005, Prevention of Children from Sexual Offences Act 2012, Sexual Harassment of Women at Work Place Act 2013, etc.
Another Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Bill, 2015 has been passed replacing the existing Indian juvenile delinquency law of 2000 (Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000). This act was passed by the Lok Sabha on 7th of May in 2015 and however, by the Rajya Sabha on 22nd of December in 2015. This act is passed to lower down the juvenile age from 18 to 16 years in cases of heinous offense (especially after the release of Nirbhaya’s case accused juvenile).
Despite of formation of various effective rules and regulations by the Indian government to handle and control the crimes against women, the number and frequency of crimes against women are increasing day by day. Women status in the country has been more offensive and dreadful in the last few years. It has decreased the confidence level of women for safety in their own country. Women are in doubtful condition for their safety and have fear while going anywhere else outside their home (office, market, etc). We should not blame the government because women safety is not only the responsibility of government only, it is the responsibility of each and every Indian citizen especially men who need to change their mind set for women.
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