critical parents. Living in an urban environment during childhood or as an adult hasconsistently been found to increase the risk of schizophrenia by a factor of two, evenafter taking into accountdrug use,ethnic group,and size of social group.Other factorsthat play an important role includesocial isolationand immigration related to socialadversity, racial discrimination, family dysfunction, unemployment, and poor housingconditions. Childhood experiences of abuse or trauma are risk factors for a diagnosis of schizophrenia later in life.
Substance abuseA number of drugs have been associated with the development of schizophreniaincludingcannabis,cocaineandamphetamines.About half of those with schizophreniause drugs and/or alcohol excessively. The role of cannabis could be causal, but otherdrugs may be used only as coping mechanisms to deal with depression, anxiety,boredom, and loneliness.Cannabis isassociatedwith adose-dependentincrease in the risk of developinga psychotic disorder. Frequent use has been found to double the risk of psychosis andschizophrenia. Some research has however questioned the causality of thislink. Amphetamine, cocaine, and to a lesser extent alcohol, can result in psychosis thatpresents very similarly to schizophrenia.
PrenatalFactors such as hypoxia and infection, or stress and malnutrition in the motherduringfetal development,may result in a slight increase in the risk of schizophrenialater in life. People diagnosed with schizophrenia are more likely to have been born inwinter or spring (at least in thenorthern hemisphere), which may be a result of increased rates of viral exposuresin utero.This difference is about 5 to 8%.C.
IncidenceSchizophrenia affects around 0.3
0.7% of people at some point in their life, or24 million people worldwide as of 2011. It occurs 1.4 times more frequently in males thanfemales and typically appears earlier in men
the peak ages of onset are 20
28 years formales and 26
32 years for females.Onset in childhoodis much rarer, as is onset in middle-or old age. Despite the received wisdom that schizophrenia occurs at similar ratesworldwide, its prevalence varies across the world, within countries, and at the local andneighborhood level. It causes approximately 1% of worldwidedisability adjusted lifeyears.The rate of schizophrenia varies up to threefold depending on how it is defined.
0diggsdiggSCHIZOPHRENIADSM-IV295.30 Paranoid type295.10 Disorganized type295.20 Catatonic type295.90 Undifferentiated type295.60 Residual type(Refer to DSM-IV for other listings.)Schizophrenia describes psychotic state that at some time is characterized by apathy, avolition,asociality, affective blunting, and alogia. The client has alterations in thoughts, percepts, mood,and behavior. Subjective experiences of disordered thought are manifested in disturbances of concept formation that sometimes lead to misinterpretations of reality, delusions (particularlydelusions of influence and ideas of reference), and hallucinations. Mood changes includeambivalence, constriction or inappropriateness of feeling, and loss of empathy with others.Behavior may be withdrawn, regressive, or bizarre (Shader, 1994).ETIOLOGICAL THEORIESPsychodynamicsPsychosis is the result of a weak ego. The development of the ego has been inhibited by asymbiotic parent/child relationship. Because the ego is weak, the use of ego defense mechanismsin times of extreme anxiety is maladaptive, and behaviors are often representations of the idsegment of the personality.BiologicalCertain genetic factors may be involved in the susceptibility to develop some forms of this psychotic disorder. Individuals are at higher risk for the disorder if there is a familial pattern of involvement (parents, siblings, other relatives). Schizophrenia has been determined to be asporadic illness (which means genes cannot currently be followed from generation togeneration). It is an autosomal dominant trait. However, most scientists agree that what isinherited is a vulnerability or predisposition, which may be due to an enzyme defect or someother biochemical abnormality, a subtle neurological deficit, or some other factor or combinationof factors. This predisposition, in combination with environmental factors, results indevelopment of the disease. Some research implies that these disorders may be a birth defect,occurring in the hippocampus region of the brain. The studies show a disordering of the pyramidal cells in the brains of schizophrenics, while the cells in the brains of nonschizophrenicindividuals appear to be arranged in an orderly fashion. Ventricular brain ratio (VBR) or